Living organisms that incite forest diseases are called pathogens and the affected tree is called a host. Most western tree pathogens are fungi, but several species of dwarf mistletoe, which are flowering plants, also cause serious tree diseases. Tree diseases occur everywhere forest trees grow. Infectious diseases caused by biotic pathogens develop over time from the interaction of these pathogens with a favorable environment and susceptible host plants (.
Environmental factors that cause plant stress, especially moisture deficits caused by drought, tend to predispose trees to attack by forest pathogens. Some diseases are species-specific, while others affect several host species. Pathogens that incite tree diseases include fungi, bacteria, viruses, parasitic plants, nematodes and other microorganisms. Insects can play an important role in the development of the disease by acting as vectors, providing wounds that allow pathogens to enter, and other functions (.
Non-infectious forest diseases are caused by abiotic factors that directly harm tree health, such as freezing temperatures and air pollutants (. Tree branch diseases have less serious consequences for the plant, since the infected branch can be removed. Leaf rust is among the most common tree diseases and is generally not dangerous, unless it causes early leaf shedding and, therefore, some bacteria that inhabit the Earth do not parasitize plants, but produce harmful toxins that cause tree root diseases. This disease of tree leaves is usually caused by the Rhytisma fungi that colonize the maple family (maple proper and sycamore).
Little can be done with tree trunk diseases, although when fungi reach the vascular system, the host dies. These types of tree diseases include mushroom, white and Texas root rot, with Amalleria mellea, Corticium galactinum and Phymatotrichopsis omnivorum as causative agents as a result. Most infections from hardwood species are also caused by fungi, with no specific treatment for tree diseases. In this sense, the identification and treatment of tree diseases is a common activity of foresters, which benefits all.
However, the signs and symptoms may be similar to those of chemical injuries caused by insect infestations, making it difficult to identify tree leaf diseases and choose the appropriate treatment. This skin disease on the bark of trees is caused by Apiosporin morbose, which can remain in the host plant for several years. In this regard, the most typical method of treating leaf disease on trees is to remove and destroy leaves in autumn. Monitoring, forecasting, planning and mitigation strategies are needed to prevent and adaptively manage tree diseases at various geographical scales (1).
Seasonal changes in the precipitation pattern alone can cause increasingly severe cases of tree disease). From harvest to environmental needs, tree pests and diseases are a major nuisance for any company involved. The abiotic agents of the disease are non-living factors, such as soil compaction, spring frost, hail and mechanical damage to tree trunks. .